HIGHLIGHTS OF U.S. ENERGY STATISTICS
Done on 19 March 2003, based on November 2002 U.S. Statistics.
Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA)
Official Energy Statistics from the U.S. Government.
The U.S. is the world’s largest energy producer, consumer and importer.
Reserves. The U.S. had 22.4 billion barrels of proven oil reserves as of January 1, 2002 (12th highest in the world), concentrated overwhelmingly (over 80%) in four states — Texas (24% including the state’s reserves in the Gulf of Mexico), Alaska (22%), Louisiana (20% including the state’s reserves in the Gulf of Mexico), and California (19%, including the state’s Federal Offshore reserves). However, U.S. proven oil reserves have been declining by around 20% since 1990, with the largest single-year decline (1.6 billion barrels) occurring in 1991.
Production. U.S. total oil production in 2002 is down sharply (around 23%) from the 1985 level. It leveled off in the mid-1990s, and began falling again following the sharp decline in oil prices of late 1997/early 1998. With the rebound in world oil prices since March 1999, U.S. crude production basically leveled off once again in 2000 and 2001, rising slightly in 2002. Despite this increase, U.S. crude production remains near 50-year lows.
Consumption. The United States is estimated to be consuming an average of about 19.7 MMBD of oil in 2002 – 45% motor gasoline, 24% “other oils,” 19% distillate fuel oil, 8% jet fuel, and 3% residual fuel oil. U.S. oil demand is expected to increase by about 3% in 2003.
Imports. Net imports accounted for 55% of total U.S. oil demand in 2001, up from 37% in 1980 and 42% in 1990. During the first nine months of 2002, its averaged total gross oil (crude and products) imports represented around 57% of total U.S. oil demand — around 2/5th of this oil came from OPEC nations, with Persian Gulf sources accounting for about 1/5 of total U.S. oil imports. The upward rising trend is expected to continue. A growing portion of imports is projected to be refined petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel, assuming the future availability of those products in world markets.
Prices. The average world oil price is projected to increase from $22.01 per barrel (2001 dollars) in 2001 to $25.83 per barrel in 2003, then to decline to $23.27 per barrel in 2005. Rising prices are projected for the longer term, to roughly $25.50 in 2020 and roughly $26.50 in 2025, largely due to higher projected world oil demand. In nominal dollars, the average world oil price is expected to reach approximately $48 per barrel in 2025.
As of January 1, 2002, the United States had estimated proven natural gas reserves of 177 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), or 3.2% of world reserves (6th in the world). For all of 2002, U.S. production of dry natural gas is estimated at 19.2 Tcf. Natural gas consumption is estimated at 21.6 Tcf, and net imports at around 3.5 Tcf, mainly from Canada.
From 1990 through 2001, natural gas consumption in the United States increased by about 14%, and this growth is likely to continue in coming years.
Overall, the United States depends on natural gas for about 23% of its total primary energy requirements (oil accounts for around 39% and coal for 22%).
Natural gas is consumed in the United States mainly in the industrial (42%), residential (22%), commercial (15%), and electric utility (13%) sectors. (Note: EIA generally places consumption of natural gas for power generation by non-utilities, including natural gas used for industrial cogeneration, in the “industrial” category.)
The U.S. is forecast to produce 1,089 million short tons (Mmst) of coal in 2002, down from 1,121 Mmst in 2001. Also in 2002, the United States is expected to consume 1,063 Mmst (up from 1,051 Mmst in 2001) and to export (net) 24 Mmst.
U.S. coal exports have fallen precipitously since 1995 due mainly to lower world coal prices and increased competition from other coal-producing nations (i.e., Australia, South Africa, China, Venezuela, Colombia), plus natural gas — especially in Europe.
In 2001, total U.S. coal exports dropped to the lowest level since 1978, largely due to 1) a strong U.S. dollar, which gave an edge to other coal-exporting countries; and 2) the tight supply market in the United States, which resulted in increased spot prices of coal, influencing some producers to shift their output to the domestic market. It is likely that the U.S. share of world coal exports will decline in coming years.
KEY ENERGY ISSUES TO 2025
A major consideration for energy markets through 2025 will be the availability of adequate natural gas supplies at competitive prices to meet growth in demand. AEO2003 projects growing dependence on major new, large-volume natural gas supply projects for both domestic and imported supplies to meet future demand levels, including deepwater offshore wells, new and expanded liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities, the Mackenzie Delta pipeline in Canada, and an Alaskan pipeline that would allow delivery of natural gas to the lower 48 States.
An average annual increase of 1.5% in Total Energy Consumption is projected between 2001 and 2020. Consumption by sector is expected to shift – transportation consumption is higher and industrial consumption is lower by 2020.
Projected average annual rate increases in demand or consumption between 2001 and 2025:
- ·Residential energy – 1% per year, with the most rapid growth expected for computers, electronic equipment, and appliances.
- ·Commercial energy — 1.6%; the most rapid increases are projected for computers, office equipment, telecommunications, and miscellaneous small appliance uses.
- ·Industrial energy — 1.3% per year.
- ·Transportation energy – 2% per year.
- ·Total electricity — 1.9% per year from 2001 through 2020 and 1.8% per year from 2001 to 2025.
- ·Total demand for natural gas — 1.8% between 2001 and 2025.
- ·Total coal consumption — 1.3% per year.
- ·Total petroleum — 1.7% through 2025, led by growth in the transportation sector, which is expected to account for about 74 percent of petroleum demand in 2025.
- ·Total renewable fuel consumption, including ethanol for gasoline blending — 2.2% per year through 2025.
Energy Production and Imports
Total energy consumption is expected to increase more rapidly than domestic energy production through 2025. As a result, net imports of energy are projected to meet a growing share of energy demand.
By 2025, net petroleum imports, including both crude oil and refined products on the basis of barrels per day, are expected to account for 68% of demand, up from 55% in 2001. Despite an expected increase in domestic refinery distillation capacity of 3 million barrels per day, net refined petroleum product imports, on the basis of barrels per day, account for a growing portion of total net imports, increasing from 15% in 2001 to 34% by 2025.
Driven by growth in natural gas demand, domestic natural gas production is projected to increase, an average rate of 1.3% per year. Despite the projected increase in domestic natural gas production, an increasing share of U.S. gas demand is met by imports, including pipeline imports from Canada and Mexico (including some from an expected facility in Baja California, Mexico), and LNG. Net imports of natural gas are projected to increase from 16% of total demand in 2001 to 22% of total demand in 2025.
As domestic coal demand grows in AEO2003, U.S. coal production is projected to increase at an average rate of 0.9% per year. By 2025, U.S. coal production is projected to reach 1,440 million short tons in AEO2003. However, net coal exports are expected to fall throughout the AEO2003 forecast, reflecting declining coal demand in some countries and intense competition from other international producers.
President: George W. Bush (since January 20, 2001)
Legislative Branch: Bicameral Congress (Senate, House of Representatives)
Judicial Branch: Supreme Court
Independence: July 4, 1776
Population (July 2001E): 285 million
Location/Size: North America, between Canada and Mexico/9,629,091 sq. km (3,717,792 sq. miles)., the third largest country in the world, behind Russia and Canada
Major Cities: Washington, DC (capital), New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Miami, Philadelphia, etc.
Languages: English, Spanish (spoken by a sizable minority)
Ethnic Groups (8/1/2000): White (82.2%), Black (12.8%), Asian (4.1%), Native American (0.9%). Note: Hispanics, who can be of any race, made up 11.8% of the U.S. population as of 8/1/2000.
Religions (1997): Protestant (58%), Roman Catholic (26%), Jewish (2%), other (6%), none (8%)
Defense (8/98): Army, 479,400; Navy, 380,600; Air Force, 370,300; Marine Corps, 171,300 (the United States also has nearly 1.35 million reservists)
Currency: Dollar ($)
Exchange Rates, per Dollar (11/6/2002): British Pound (0.6397); Canadian Dollar (1.557); Euro (0.9999);Japanese Yen (121.85)
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (2002E): $10.5 trillion
Real GDP Growth Rate: (2001E): 0.3% (2002E): 2.3% (2003F): 3.0%
Inflation Rate (GDP implicit price deflator) (2001E): 2.4% (2002E): 1.3% (2003F): 2.5%
Unemployment Rate (2001E): 4.8% (2002E): 5.8% (2003F): 5.9%
Current Account Balance (2001E): -$393 billion (2002E): -$510 billion (2003F): -$535 billion
Merchandise Exports (2001E): $719 billion (2002F): $693 billion
Merchandise Imports (2001E): $1,146 billion (2002F): $1,171 billion
Merchandise Trade Balance (2001E): -$427 billion (2002F): -$478 billion
Major Exports: Capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies and raw materials, consumer goods, agricultural products
Major Imports: Crude oil and refined petroleum products, machinery, automobiles, consumer goods, industrial raw materials, food and beverages
Major Trading Partners: Canada, Japan, European Union, Mexico
Federal Budget Surplus (2001E): $127 billion (2002E): -$180 billion (2003F): -$255 billion
Secretary of Energy: Spencer Abraham (as of January 20, 2001)
Proven Oil Reserves (1/1/02E): 22.4 billion barrels
Oil Production (January-September 2002E): 8.1 million barrels per day (bbl/d), of which 5.8 million bbl/d was crude oil (NOTE: Including “refinery gain,” US oil production in 2002 is estimated at 9.1 million bbl/d)
Oil Consumption (January-September 2002E): 19.6 million bbl/d
Net Oil Imports (January-September 2002E): 10.3 million bbl/d
Gross Oil Imports (January-September 2002E): 11.25 million bbl/d (of which, 8.96 million bbl/d was crude oil and 2.28 million bbl/d were petroleum products)
Crude Oil Imports from the Persian Gulf (January-August 2002E): 2.3 million bbl/d (around 26% of total U.S. crude oil imports)
Top Sources of U.S. Crude Oil Imports (January-August 2002E): Saudi Arabia (1.49 million bbl/d); Mexico (1.46 million bbl/d); Canada (1.37 million bbl/d); Venezuela (1.14 million bbl/d)
Value of Oil Imports (January-August 2002E): $64 billion (down from $74 billion during the same period in 2001)
Crude Oil Refining Capacity (2002E): 16.8 million bbl/d (153 operable refineries)
Oil Stocks (9/02E): 1.57 billion barrels (including about 585 million barrels in the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve)
Oil Wells Drilled (January-September 2002E): 3,689 (down from 6,210 during the same period in 2001)
Operating Oil and Natural Gas Rotary Rigs (10/02E): 852 (709 for natural gas and 140 for oil)
Natural Gas Reserves (1/1/02E): 177 trillion cubic feet (Tcf)
Dry Natural Gas Production (2001E): 19.5 Tcf (2002F): 19.2 Tcf
Natural Gas Consumption (2001E): 21.4 Tcf (2002F): 21.6 Tcf
Net Natural Gas Imports (2001E): 3.65 Tcf (over 90% from Canada) (2002F): 3.46 Tcf
Natural Gas Wells Drilled (2001E): 21,224 (up from 15,598 in 2000)
Recoverable Coal Reserves (12/31/98): 275.1 billion short tons (54% lignite and subbituminous; 46% anthracite and bituminous)
Coal Production (2001E): 1,121 million short tons (Mmst) (2002F): 1,089 Mmst
Coal Consumption (2001E): 1,050 Mmst (2002F): 1,063 Mmst
Gross Coal Exports (2001E): 49 Mmst (2002F): 41 Mmst
Primary and Secondary Coal Stocks (closing; 2002F): 159 Mmst (down from 170 Mmst in 2001)
Electric Generation Capacity (2001E): 855 gigawatts (37% coal-fired, 16% natural-gas, 11% nuclear; 9% hydroelectric, 4% petroleum, and 2% “renewables”)
Electric Net Generation by Utilities (2002F): 2,579 billion kilowatthours (of which coal-fired 59%, nuclear 20%, natural gas 10%, hydroelectricity 10%, oil 2%, geothermal and “other” 0.1%)
Non-utility Power Production (2002F): 1,275 billion kilowatthours (of which natural gas-fired 35%, coal 30%, nuclear 21%, “geothermal and other” 8%, oil 3%, hydroelectric 2%, and “other gaseous fuels” 2%)
Total Electricity Generation (2001E): 3,758 billion kilowatthours (2002F): 3,854 billion kilowatthours
Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Christine Todd Whitman
Total Energy Consumption (2001E): 97.1 quadrillion Btu (25% of world total energy consumption) (2002F): 97.8 quadrillion Btu
Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (2001E): 1,540 million metric tons of carbon (about 25% of world total carbon emissions)
Per Capita Energy Consumption (2000E): 348.9 million Btu
Per Capita Carbon Emissions (2000E): 5.7 metric tons of carbon
Energy Intensity (2001E): 10,530 Btu/$1996
Carbon Intensity (2000E): 0.17 metric tons of carbon/thousand $1996
Sectoral Share of Energy Consumption (2001E): Industrial (35%), Transportation (26%), Residential (21%), Commercial (18%)
Fuel Share of Energy Consumption (2001E): Oil (39%), Natural Gas (23%), Coal (23%), Renewables (6%)
Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions (2000E): Oil (42%), Coal (37%), Natural Gas (21%)
Renewable Energy Consumption (2001E): 6,173 trillion Btu (about 39% of which was conventional hydroelectric power)
Number of People per Motor Vehicle (2000E): 1.3
Status in Climate Change Negotiations: Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (ratified October 15th, 1992). Under the negotiated Kyoto Protocol (signed on November 12th, 1998 – not yet ratified), the United States agreed to reduce greenhouse gases 7% below 1990 levels by the 2008-2012 commitment period.
Major Environmental Issues: Air pollution resulting in acid rain in both the US and Canada; the US is the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water pollution from runoff of pesticides and fertilizers; very limited natural fresh water resources in much of the western part of the country require careful management; desertification.
Major International Environmental Agreements: A party to Conventions on Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands and Whaling. Has signed, but not ratified, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes.
The total energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, net hydro, nuclear, geothermal, solar, wind, wood and waste electric power. The renewable energy consumption statistic is based on International Energy Agency (IEA) data and includes hydropower, solar, wind, tide, geothermal, solid biomass and animal products, biomass gas and liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption and carbon emissions are also based on IEA data.
Major U.S. Oil Companies (2002): ExxonMobil, ChevronTexaco, ConocoPhillips, Anadarko, Occidental, Apache, Burlington Resources, Unocal, Devon, Marathon
Major U.S. Coal Companies (2000): Peabody Holding Co., Inc.; Arch Coal; Kennecott Energy Co.; Consol Energy; RAG American Coal Holding; AEI Resources; A.T. Massey; Vulcan Partners
Oil Pipelines (2001E): Around 2 million miles Natural Gas Pipelines (2000E): 278,000 miles
Major Ports: Baltimore, Chicago, Hampton Roads, Houston, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia
Contact: Lowell Feld
Information contained in this report is the best available as of November 2002 and is subject to change.
The date posted here is due to our website rebuild, it does not reflect the original date this article was posted. This article was originally posted in Yonip in March 22nd 2003